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{May 25, 2009}   RESEARCH PROPOSAL INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION BETWEEN LECTURER AND STUDENTS TO MOTIVATE STUDENTS IN CLASS Analysis with Social Learning Theory

RESEARCH PROPOSAL

INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION BETWEEN LECTURER AND STUDENTS TO MOTIVATE STUDENTS IN CLASS

Analysis with Social Learning Theory

Finished by:

Lucia Tri Ediana P.J.     (03568)

FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCE AND POLITIC SCIENCE

ATMAJAYA YOGYAKARTA UNIVERSITY

2009

INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION BETWEEN LECTURER AND

STUDENTS TO MOTIVATE STUDENTS IN CLASS

Analysis with Social Learning Theory

Introduction

Have a positive relation between teacher and students may motivate students into success stories in class (Elias 2006; Aydogan 2008; Corrigan and Chapman 2008).

Many researches prove the importance of interpersonal communication between teacher and students which can helps students become success. Interpersonal communication is face to face communications which have high affectivity. Have a good interpersonal communication make good deal in relation. A positive relation between teacher and students in interpersonal communication result ‘trusting’ in that relation. Students trust in teacher is important. There are correlation between trust in teacher and motivation to students. (West and Turner 2007; Corrigan and Chapman 2008).

“Trust provides a sensation of collegiality that rebels from the bland acceptance of the ideas and values of the ‘public’ and challenges each student and teacher to formulate, discover and test, through dialogue, their personally transforming relationships to knowledge, self and the other….. The development of interpersonal trust is believed to be an initial step to forming healthy human relationships” (Corrigan and Chapman, 2008).

The challenge for teacher in education is to motivate the unmotivated. Surely even the “Success Stories” of the education system can all recount subjects where they at least initially lacked motivation at school (Keach, 2009).

Building a positive relationship between the teacher and students helps students become more successful and have more motivation. A teacher’s relationships with students both within and outside the classroom affect their attitudes towards and motivation for that class. Teacher’s attention can motivate student to get success in their studying (Aydogan, 2008). Teachers should motivate students to get their students success. Growing emotional-motivational reflects the importance of various interpersonal skills as essential for success in school and life. Emotion may drive attention. Emotional learning broadens the framework of education and addresses the complex interplay of emotions and cognition in learning, remembering, and understanding. Learning is a process closely linked to students’ social and emotional needs, as well as the context of their learning environment (Elias, 2006).

Albert Bandura, explained social learning theory, there is continuous interaction between a person’s internal state and the social reinforcements that follow from the person’s behavior with others. Thus we learn how to behave from our social interactions. In this way, there is role playing and modeling which can persuade person to motivate his/her behavior. Human may have predicted will act out their role by learning their model, by imitating (Larson, 1986).

Based on some researches above we can conclude that interpersonal communication between lecturer and students have an influence to students’ motivation. Though these findings are suggest or instructive about the effects of teachers’ communication on motivation, needs to consider additional variables. Research variable focused most-only in teacher. So, this research will design to complete the previous researches and use not only teacher’s role but also students’ perspective when they playing their role. This research focus on analyzing students’ motivation use social learning theory, which explained by Albert Bandura, to analyze the research problem and adds role playing and modeling, as additional variables, which can be analyze with social learning theory.

Research Questions

  1. How a lecturer being a model which can motivate his /her students into motivation? In other ways, how students’ act out their role (role playing) with motivation by a lecturer?
  2. What are some of the factors affecting students into motivation in relation to a lecturer as their model?
  3. How does motivation persuade or impact students’ success in their studies?

Literature Review

Favoritism in the classroom is one of the most important reasons affecting instruction and thus student success (Aydogan, 2008). Favoritism is an act of teacher’s attention. Teacher’s attention can motivate student to get success in their studying. Factors leading to favoritism among teachers may be listed as follows: student success, student’s social or economic status, gender, physical appearance, familiarity between student and teacher or student’s family and teacher (blood relations or friendship), and parallelism between the ideology (political or religious) of students or their family and the teacher. Building a positive relationship between the teacher and students helps students become more successful and have more motivation. A teacher’s relationships with students both within and outside the classroom affect their attitudes towards and motivation for that class. However, teachers are sometimes affected by student success or failure. More precisely, teachers may criticize less successful students more harshly and have less contact with them, thus breaking their motivation to learn. On the other hand, they may perceive certain other students as more successful and thus develop a more positive attitude towards them, which ultimately supports them in gaining more success (Aydogan, 2008).

Trust is an integral component for culturally sensitive pedagogy. This study sought to support that gains in teaching effectiveness can be obtained by sharing responsibilities with students, and working together to build trustful bonds. The participants for this study were 200 college students enrolled in an introductory communication studies course at a large mid-Atlantic university. Participants completed a multiple scale survey to help clarify the relationship between one’s level (during high school) of trust in teachers, learner empowerment, and motivation to learn. Trust is a “process of holding certain relevant, favorable perceptions of another person”. Trust provides a sensation of collegiality that rebels from the bland acceptance of the ideas and values of the ‘public’ and challenges each student and teacher to formulate, discover and test, through dialogue, their personally transforming relationships to knowledge, self and the other. The results offered rather compelling support that trust most likely was associated with more motivated and empowered students. The fact that all of these students made it to college could suggest that trust in teachers might have helped create the empowerment and motivation that propelled them to higher education. The results would suggest that the gains to motivating and empowering students seem well worth the risks experienced when we open up and self disclose to our students (Corrigan and Chapman, 2008).

A research from Elias also prove: “making good interpersonal communication between teacher and students is important”. A growing body of research and practice in the area of social and emotional learning (SEL) reflects the importance of various interpersonal skills as essential for success in school and life. These include communication skills, proactive skills, productivity, collaborative problem solving Collaborative Problem Solving (CPS) is a behavior management approach developed for children with social, emotional, and behavioral challenges. The CPS approach views behavioral challenges as a form of learning disability and seeks to correct behavior through cognitive intervention. School personnel are becoming increasingly aware of the benefits of SEL approaches for their schools. When translated into the classroom, social and emotional learning broadens the framework of education and addresses the complex interplay of emotions and cognition in learning, remembering, and understanding. Learning is a process closely linked to students’ social and emotional needs, as well as the context of their learning environment. Research has demonstrated that emotions drive attention, learning, and memory. Students distracted or overcome by emotions that interfere with learning may find it difficult to accomplish simple academic tasks such as following directions (Elias, 2006).

Though these findings are suggest or instructive about the effects of teachers’ communication on motivation, needs to consider additional variables. Research variable focused most-only in teacher. So, this research will design to complete the previous researches and use not only teacher’s role but also students’ perspective when they playing their role. This research use social learning theory which explained by Albert Bandura to analyze the research problem and adds role playing and modeling, as additional variables, which can be analyze with social learning theory.

Theoretical Frameworks

  1. Interpersonal Communication

Communication is a social process in which individuals employ symbols to establish and interpret meaning in their environment. Interpersonal communication refers to face to face communications which have high affectivity. Investigating how relationships begin, the maintenance of relationships, and the dissolution of relationships (West and Turner, 2007).

One way of defining interpersonal communication is to compare it to other forms of communication. In so doing, we would examine how many people are involved, how physically close they are to one another, how many sensory channels are used, and the feedback provided. Interpersonal communication differs from other forms of communication in that there are few participants involved, the persons who in interaction are in close physical proximity to each other, there are many sensory channels used, and feedback is immediate. An important point to note about the contextual definition is that it does not take into account the relationship between the persons who in interaction. From this view, interpersonal communication is defined as communication that occurs between people who have known each other for some time. Importantly, these people view each other as unique individuals, not as people who are simply acting out social situations. Interpersonal communication is so important because interpersonal communication can gain knowledge about another individual and to establish an identity. The roles playing in human relationships help human establish identity. So too does the face, the public self-image from a person present to others. Both roles and face are constructed based on how a person interacts with others. Finally, interpersonal communication needed to express and receive interpersonal needs (Hybels and Weaver, 2004).

  1. Social Learning Theory

Albert Bandura, explained social learning theory, there is continuous interaction between a person’s internal state and the social reinforcements that follow from the person’s behavior with others. Thus we learn how to behave from our social interactions. In this way, there is role playing and modeling which can persuade person to motivate his/her behavior. Students may have predicted will act out their role by learning their teacher, which position as student’s model, by imitating. Bandura’s major premise is that human can learn by observing others. He considers vicarious experience to be the typical way that human beings change. He uses the term observation of another’s response and modeling, and he claims that modeling can have as much impact as direct experience. Social learning theory is a general theory of human behavior.  Bandura warned that children and adults acquire attitudes, emotional responses, and new styles of conduct through modeling. Human learning by imitating his/her model (Larson, 1986).

  • General principles of social learning theory follow:

1. People can learn by observing the behavior is of others and the outcomes of those behaviors.

2. Learning can occur without a change in behavior. Behaviorists say that learning has to be represented by a permanent change in behavior; in contrast social learning theorists say that because people can learn through observation alone, their learning may not necessarily be shown in their performance. Learning may or may not result in a behavior change.

3. Cognition plays a role in learning. Social learning theory has become increasingly cognitive in its interpretation of human learning. Awareness and expectations of future reinforcements or punishments can have a major effect on the behaviors that people exhibit.

4. Social learning theory can be considered a bridge or a transition between behaviorist learning theories and cognitive learning theories (Ormrod, 1999).

  • How the environment reinforces and punishes modeling:

People are often reinforced for modeling the behavior of others. Bandura suggested that the environment also reinforces modeling. This is in several possible ways:

1. The observer is reinforced by the model.

2. The observer is reinforced by a third person. The observer might be modeling the actions of someone else.

3. The imitated behavior itself leads to reinforcing consequences. Many behaviors that people learn from others produce satisfying or reinforcing results.

4. Consequences of the model’s behavior affect the observer’s behavior vicariously. This is known as vicarious reinforcement. This is where in the model is reinforced for a response and then the observer shows an increase in that same response. Bandura illustrated this by having students watch a film of a model hitting an inflated clown doll. One group of children saw the model being praised for such action. Without being reinforced, the group of children began to also hit the doll (Ormrod, 1999).

  • Contemporary social learning perspective of reinforcement and punishment:

1. Contemporary theory proposes that both reinforcement and punishment have indirect effects on learning. They are not the sole or main cause.

2. Reinforcement and punishment influence the extent to which an individual exhibits a behavior that has been learned.

3. The expectation of reinforcement influences cognitive processes that promote learning. Therefore attention pays a critical role in learning. And attention is influenced by the expectation of reinforcement. An example would be where the teacher tells a group of students that what they will study next is not on the test. Students will not pay attention, because they do not expect to know the information for a test (Ormrod, 1999).

  • Cognitive factors in social learning:

Social learning theory has cognitive factors as well as behaviorist factors (actually operant factors).

1. Learning without performance: Bandura makes a distinction between learning through observation and the actual imitation of what has been learned.

2. Cognitive processing during learning: Social learning theorists contend that attention is a critical factor in learning.

3. Expectations: As a result of being reinforced, people form expectations about the consequences that future behaviors are likely to bring. They expect certain behaviors to bring reinforcements and others to bring punishment. The learner needs to be aware however, of the response reinforcements and response punishment. Reinforcement increases a response only when the learner is aware of that connection.

4. Reciprocal causation: Bandura proposed that behavior can influence both the environment and the person. In fact each of these three variables, the person, the behavior, and the environment can have an influence on each other.

5. Modeling: There are different types of models. There is the live model, and actual person demonstrating the behavior. There can also be a symbolic model, which can be a person or action portrayed in some other medium, such as television, videotape, and computer programs (Ormrod, 1999).

  • Behaviors that can be learned through modeling:

Many behaviors can be learned, at least partly, through modeling (Ormrod, 1999).

  • Conditions necessary for effective modeling to occur:

Bandura mentions four conditions that are necessary before an individual can successfully model the behavior of someone else:

1. Attention: the person must first pay attention to the model.

2. Retention: the observer must be able to remember the behavior that has been observed. One way of increasing this is using the technique of rehearsal.

3. Motor reproduction: the third condition is the ability to replicate the behavior that the model has just demonstrated. This means that the observer has to be able to replicate the action, which could be a problem with a learner who is not ready developmentally to replicate the action.

4. Motivation: the final necessary ingredient for modeling to occur is motivation; learners must want to demonstrate what they have learned. Remember that since these four conditions vary among individuals, different people will reproduce the same behavior differently (Ormrod, 1999).

Research Methodology

  1. Location

This research will have located in Atma Jaya Yogyakarta University (UAJY), more specific, this research only looks closely students in faculty of social and politic science (FISIP). This location selected because of attainable. Researcher is a student in FISIP, UAJY. So, researcher can reach this space. Object in this research also closed to students in first year because researcher still in first year degree. It’s about feasibility.

  1. Type of Social Research

This research refers to qualitative type. Qualitative is one of social methodologies, this research method is set exploration can lead not only to formulating hypotheses and theories, but also modifying and testing hypotheses and theories. Exploration helps to analyze research object. Method in qualitative research is design to bring the researcher closer to social reality and social interaction (Sarantakos, 1993; Dorsten and Hotchkiss, 2004). This research will analyze the social interaction’s problem use social learning theory, theory which exists in interpersonal behaviors. Researcher want analyze about role playing and modeling between lecturer and students in class. The interaction, into interpersonal communication, between lecturer and students will analyze to testing the hypothesis. This research has a hypothesis that interpersonal communication between lecturer and students can motivate students in class, liked have explained in introduction. Have a positive relation between teacher and students may motivate students into success stories in class (Elias 2006; Avdogan 2008; Corrigan and Chapman 2008). It’s about social research which the object is human relation. There is no absolute statistic data can describe, predict and judge it as certainty and absolutely. In different place and condition it may result different data. This research will have any subjectivity from researcher because researcher has an interest to this problem and the researcher’s position is in line (researcher is a student in FISIP UAJY). This research is design to analyze and prove or testing the hypothesis. So, researcher concludes this research into qualitative type.

  1. Methods of Data Collection

To collect the data in this research, researcher will use method in participant observation. Researcher as a student in FISIP UAJY actually becomes a member of the objects to study. To collect the qualitative data researcher observe from inside the group and the researcher identity is a student. As a student researcher can study and observe what happened in class from inside and as experienced by the members of the group to dealing and exploring the research problems. Research will locate in FISIP UAJY. Object in this research also closed to students in first year because researcher still in first year degree. So, researcher will to observe role playing and modeling between lecturer and students in every class which researcher joined into. The researcher-observed relationship is close, based on understanding and mutual trust, and also directed towards cooperation for the purpose of answering the research questions. The researcher is expected to respect the observed, to be understanding, and tolerant and also familiar with the condition and process of teaching-learning in class. Researcher as observer will recording and noting the data or information during the process of teaching-learning occurs in class. Researcher will observe the relation and interaction patterns when lecturer and students have in communications. Observation design to collect the data to answer the research questions, how students act their role, did a lecturer be a motivating model to the students in class, what are the factors affect students into motivation in relationship with their lecturer in class, and what is the impact of motivation to students.

  1. Analysis Data

The analysis of data can be through scaling interpretation for the observation recording that can be in support to any descriptive type of analysis basing from social learning theory. In social learning theory explain about role playing and modeling in interpersonal communication that can persuade in behaviors changing. For changing their attitude or behaviors need any motivational. In this way, there is role playing and modeling which can persuade person to motivate his/her behavior. Human may have predicted will act out their role by learning their model, by imitating (Larson, 1986). So, by the supporting data from observation, this research will analyze use social learning theory to testing the hypothesis: lecturer as a model to the students may motivate students in class in success stories in positive interpersonal relation. Analysis of the data is interwoven and takes place concurrently.

  1. Resources

The resources deemed for the realization of the study can come from related books and certain publications mostly underlying to the support resource materials ideally as basis for the literature studies of the study. The knowledge and information about the previous researches to be integrated and evaluated for validity and reliability can be found from The Free Library online.

  1. Access to Study Population

For such access to study population there can be distribution of permission proposal or letter, that should be given to the supervisor heads of UAJY and ask their permission to use FISIP UAJY as the venue for giving out of the participant observation to interpersonal communication between lecturer and students in class. Thus, informing FISIP UAJY that such suitable information about FISIP UAJY will be use as information reference for whatever case data needed for the overall aspect of the research.

References

Larson, Charles U. 1986. Persuasion Reception and Responsibility.

California: Wardsworth Publishing Company.

West, Richard dan Lynn H. Turner. 2007. Introducing Communication theory.

Analysis and Application, Third edition. New York: McGraw-Hill

Sarantakos, Sotirios. 1993. Social Research. Australia: MacMillan.

Hybels, Saundra and Richard L. Weaver II. 2004. Communicating Effectively.

New York: McGraw-Hill

Dorsten, Linda E. and Lawrence Hotchkiss. 2004. Research Methods and Society.

Foundations of Social Inquiry. USA: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Elias, Maurice J. 2006. Building Learning Communities through Social and

Emotional Learning: Navigating. The Rough Seas of Implementation.

Publication: Professional School Counseling.

(http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Building+learning+communities+through+social+and+emotional+learning%3a…-a0153359898)

Corrigan, Michael W. and Paul E. Chapman. 2008. TRUST IN TEACHERS: A MOTIVATING ELEMENT TO LEARNING (http://radicalpedagogy.icaap.org/content/issue9_2/Corrigan_Chapman.html )

Aydogan, Ismail. 2008. Favoritism in the classroom: a study on Turkish schools.

Publication: Journal of Instructional Psychology

(http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Favoritism+in+the+classroom%3a+a+study+on+Turkish+schools.-a0181365763 )

Abbott, Lynda. Social Learning Theory.

From notes on Ormond’s Human Learning

[Ref:  Ormrod, J.E. (1999). Human learning (3rd Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.]

(http://teachnet.edb.utexas.edu/~lynda_abbott/Social.html)

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smartluci says:

i don’t know why no body looking out this. I think this is great! Congrats! Keep working! Take this into a fulfill research. Wait your result :))



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